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European Union 2021-2027 Programming Process: Africa’s Local and Regional Authorities Hold National Seminars

The preparation of African local governments is intensifying with a view to taking part in the negotiations for the 2021-2027 programming of European cooperation. Benefiting from the technical support of UCLG Africa since May 2020, the national associations of local authorities of the continent are working hard to meet expectations during the exchanges scheduled for the end of February 2021.

January 2021 was marked by the holding of national seminars for the validation of the roadmap that the associations will bring to the negotiating table. This roadmap highlights the priority areas of financing for local authorities according to the needs of the populations of their country. For this EU programming cycle (2021-2027), they will be around the table with national governments.

The first associations that have already organized their national seminars to validate their roadmap are : Libya (14 December 2020), Nigeria (19 January 2021), Cameroon (21 January 2021), Zambia (21 January 2021), Cape Verde (26 January 2021), Senegal (27 January 2021).

As a reminder, the national associations of African local authorities will have to lead the advocacy on 3 points:

1) To have local governments recognized as state actors. Associations must obtain this status from national governments on the basis of the EU Communication made in 2013;

2) To have national associations of local and regional authorities considered as political representatives of local governments and have them integrated into negotiations alongside national governments;

3) To ensure that all public policies are territorialized since there is a national dimension and a territorial dimension to any policy that will be implemented, including the financial support to be provided by the European Union.

The financing made available in the new programming of the European Union Commission for the period (2021-2027) amounts to Thirty-two billion euros.

24th session of UCLG Africa’s Executive Committee

The Executive Committee and the Pan-African Council of UCLG Africa attended ordinary sessions by video conference, on Monday 07 December 2020.

The session of the Executive committee was mainly devoted to the adoption of UCLG Africa’s budget and 2021 work plan, whilst the session of the Pan-African Council primarily focused on the 2021-2030 ten-year strategic plan of the organization (GADDEPA 2.0). Sessions were led by Dr. Mohamed Boudra, Mayor of Al Hoceima, President of the Moroccan Association of Presidents of Communal Councils (AMPCC), Vice-President of UCLG Africa, and President of UCLG World.

The opening speech of the Executive committee was made by General Mahmoud Shaarawy, Minister of Local Development of the Arab Republic of Egypt in the presence of Ms. Soham El Wardini, Mayor of Dakar (Senegal), Vice-President of UCLG Africa for the West Africa Region; Mr. Uwimana Innocent, President of RALGA (Rwanda), Vice-President of UCLG Africa for the East Africa Region; Ms. Dao Macoura, Mayor of Foumbolo (Côte d’Ivoire), President of REFELA (Network of locally elected women in Africa); General Khaled Abdel Aal, Governor of Cairo (Egypt); Ms. Fatimetou Abdel Malick, President of the Regional Council of Nouakchott (Mauritania); and Mr. Jean-Pierre Elong Mbassi, Secretary General of UCLG Africa.

General Mahmoud Shaarawy welcomed the cooperation between his country, Egypt, and UCLG Africa and announced the signing of the Headquarters Agreement for the North Africa regional office of UCLG Africa, which is scheduled for February 2021 in Cairo (Egypt). “In addition, we would like to reiterate our call to host the second edition of the conference, ‘African cities, locomotive of sustainable development’, to continue the momentum of the first edition, organized in June 2019. We are eager to emerge from this Covid crisis to find out how our African cities have been able to face this major challenge. I would like to express our support for the celebration of Rabat as African Capital of Culture for 2020-2021. Rabat is a historic city that has contributed to the enrichment of Arab and African culture through the ages. I take the opportunity to report that we are continuing the work for the signing and ratification by our country of the African Charter of the Values ​​and Principles of Decentralization, Local Governance and Local Development and of the Civil Service Charter of the African Union. We will let you know once the process is complete.

The Executive Committee adopted the 2021 budget and work plan of UCLG Africa and approved the activity report of the general secretariat for the period from June to November 2020 and the budget execution report, dated 30 October 2020.

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Recommandations of the 4th Edition of the African Forum of Territorial Managers and Training Institutes Targeting the Local Government (FAMI 4 )

The 4th Edition of the African Forum of Territorial Managers and Training Institutes Targeting the Local Government (FAMI 4 ) brought together from 23 to 28 November 2020 nearly 686 participants on the Zoom Platform, 33%  were women, representing , 33 African countries and 12 non-African countries: Austria, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Nepal, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, USA.

The theme of the meeting was : “Promoting Effective, Ethical, Transparent, and Accountable Local Public Institutions in Africa to act and impact the Decade of Action ” . FAMI was punctuated by an official opening, 5 Plenary Sessions, 6 Parallel Workshops, a Meeting of the Local Africa HRNet, the holding of the 5th Meeting of the Academic Council of ALGA of UCLG-Africa and a Virtual Excursion to discover the Potential, the Structuring Projects, the Heritage and Culture of the Region Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima.

The following recommandations were made by the participants:

1) The Political Will: “Zero Tolerance to Corruption and the Corrupt”, Acting by Example, Setting the Example
(Corruption is not and should not be African; corruption should not exist in our Communities)
2) Work, Promote and Anchor the Moralization of Public Life.
3) To have solid, responsible and respectful Institutions of the Rule of Law, Law and Order.
4) Respect for ethical principles and values in all institutions and in all spheres of governance.
5) Promote, Respect and Anchor Participatory and Inclusive Approaches.

6) Understand, appropriate and implement the New Principles of Effective Governance.
7) Investing in Human Capital at all Levels (Education, Socialization, Training, Capacity Building, Tutoring, Mentoring, Peer Learning, Case Studies, Good Practices, Networking, putting an end to the Assistantship Spirit and Learning to Count on Self, ….).
8) Have Principles, Institutions, procedures and mechanisms to anchor and respect Accountability.
9) Have an enabling environment and holistic and systemic approaches.
10) Transform Leadership at all levels.

Read the full report of the forum here.

A multi-level structured dialogue on climate finance: the untapped potential of investments in mitigation and adaptation at the subnational level

 

 

 

As part of its participation in the work of LOCs4Africa, a session was organized by UCLG Africa, in partnership with ICLEI and CoM SSA, on vertical governance under the theme,     A multi-level structured dialogue on climate finance: the untapped potential of investments in mitigation and adaptation at the subnational level.

The session, organized in two parts, was moderated by Stéphane M. Pouffary, General Manager of ENERGIES 2050 and Mr. Mohamed Nbou, Director of the Climate Task Force at UCLG Africa, with the participation of the following panelists: Ms. Giorgia Rambelli and Mr. Andy Deacon (GCoM), Ms. Kobie Brand, Regional Director ( ICLEI Africa ), Mr. Frédéric Vallier, Secretary General (CEMR), as well as Mr. Mohamed Sefiani, Mayor of Chefchaouen and Co-President of the Climate Task Force of UCLG Africa and Mrs. Georgette Djenontin Daba, Climate Change Focal Point of the National Association of Communes of Benin (ANCB).

The efforts undertaken within the framework of the CoM SSA were the entry points of discussion to identify the salient points of the debate. Special thanks go to the CoM SSA initiative, the Climate Task Force of UCLG Africa, that has made it possible to institute an approach that structures and facilitates the establishment of a collaborative framework between a national government and the local governments. The CoM SSA was also the initiator of the proposal to revise the NDCs starting with the definition of Locally Determined Contributions (LDCs) through the establishment of a Structured Dialogue between the two levels of local and national decisions to achieve effective territorialization of NDCs.

This proposal for LDCs was endorsed by the Africa group at COP 25 in December 2019 in Madrid and is currently the subject of a pilot study in the Souss-Massa region in Morocco. The results of this pilot project will be presented during the Local Authorities Day, scheduled during COP 26 in November 2021 in Glasgow and will be disseminated to local authorities in Africa.

The LDC concept also aims to amplify the voice of African local authorities with regional and international financial institutions and mobilize the still poorly exploited potential at the local level for a better implementation of the Paris Accord.

Following this perspective, the main part of the session debate focused on the means of building bridges of climate finance and removing the obstacles and barriers to lay the foundations of a framework that will foster the pooling of efforts between the two decision-making levels, the national and local one, in order to speed up the pace of implementation of NDCs.

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24th Session of the Executive Committee of UCLG Africa

On 7 December, 2020, the Executive Committee and the Pan-African Council of United Cities and Local Governments of Africa (UCLG Africa) will meet in ordinary sessions by videoconference.

The Executive Committee will hold its 24th session at 10:00 am. This session will focus on the adoption of the 2021 budget and work plan of UCLG Africa.

The Pan-African Council will meet at 3:00 p.m. It will receive and give its orientations on the proposed ten-year strategic plan 2021-2030 of the continental organization of local governments (GADDEPA 2.0). It will also discuss the participation of members of UCLG Africa in the activities of the commissions and working groups of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG).

The official ceremony of the meeting of the Executive Committee will be opened by General Mahmoud Shaarawy, Minister of Local Development of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

The two meetings will be chaired by Dr. Mohamed Boudra, Mayor of Al Hoceima, President of the Moroccan Association of Presidents of Communal Councils (AMPCC), Vice-President of UCLG Africa and President of UCLG World.

As a reminder, the Executive Committee of UCLG Africa is the body responsible for the political leadership of the organization. The Executive Committee has 16 members: 15 members representing each of the continent’s 5 regions, (i.e. 3 members for each of the 5 regions), to which is added the President of the Network of Locally Elected Women of Africa (REFELA), UCLG Africa’s commission on gender.

The Pan-African Council of UCLG Africa is the body responsible for the annual supervision of the management of UCLG Africa between the meetings of the General Assembly, which take place every three years within the framework of the Africities Summits. It has 45 active members, i.e. 9 for each African sub-region.

 

For further information please contact: 

Gaëlle Yomi: Phone : + 212 610 56 71 45

e-mail: gyomi@uclga.org 

Visit the UCLG Africa website :  www.uclga.org

4th edition of the African Forum of Managers and Territorial Development Institutes targeting Local Authorities (FAMI 4)

From 23 to 28 November 2020, UCLG Africa through its African Local Government Academy (ALGA) is organizing the 4th edition of the African Forum of Territorial Managers and Training Institutes targeting Local and Subnational Governments (FAMI 4). The 2020 edition is held in a virtual format in partnership with the Region of Tangiers -Tetouan – Al Hoceima (Morocco).

More than a hundred participants from Africa and other continents around the world, will meet around the theme: “Promoting Responsible, Integral, Transparent, Effective and Accountable Local Public Institutions in Africa to act and impact the Decade of Action“, on the occasion of the celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the United Nations (UN), of the International Civil Service Day (June 23), and of the African Anti-Corruption Day (July 11).

The Forum will be an opportunity to discuss the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16) at the local level, particularly in Africa, to discuss the obstacles and challenges that continue to hamper this implementation and share good practices and successful experiences contributing to the promotion and anchoring of responsible, transparent, honest, efficient and accountable local public institutions in order to resolutely head towards Sustainable Development. Particular emphasis will be placed on the different Targets of SDG 16, in this case the prevention and fight against corruption, the promotion of efficient public institutions, participation, inclusion, transparency, access information, accountability, and other issues.

In In 2020, the international community entered a decisive decade for the present and future of generations and for all life on this planet, and it was decided to make it a Decade of action and service for sustainable development. Achieving this goal inevitably requires an investment in human capital and particularly at the local level, as well as in good governance at all levels. Indeed, the Local Public Institutions embodied by Local or Subnational Governments have a decisive role to play within this framework in order to be real Actors of change able to act and impact the Decade of Action proclaimed., wanted and supported by all the components of the international community through the global agenda 2030 and the African Agenda 2063.

During the six days of the Forum, participants will benefit from plenary sessions, parallel workshops, information days, awareness-raising, capacity building and exchange of good practices on various themes related to the implementation of SDG 16. As usual, the Forum will also organize a virtual cultural excursion this time to discover the structuring projects of the region of Tangiers – Tetouan- Al Hoceima, its Monuments and its historical sites, its craftsmanship, its local products as well as its culinary art.

A special session will be marked by the presentation of the principles and strategies of effective governance to achieve the SDGs, moderated by Dr. Louis Meuleman, Member of the Committee of Experts of the United Nations Public Administration (UN-CEPA, 2018-2020), Policy and Governance Advisor, from Holland.

The following will take part in the event: Representatives of International Organizations, Representatives of States and National Governments, Local and Subnational Governments, National Associations of Local Governments, Local Elected Officials, African Territorial Managers, Universities and Training Institutions, representatives of the private sector, as well as the various components of civil society./.

 

For further information please contact:

Gaëlle Yomi : Phone: + 212 610 56 71 45

e-mail : gyomi@uclga.org

 

UCLG Africa Statutory meetings 2020

The 24th session of UCLG Africa Executive Committee will be held online, on 7 December 2020. In the afternoon of the same day the Pan-African Council of the organization will also meet.

This 23rd session of the Executive Committee will adopt the 2021 budget of UCLG Africa.

As a reminder, UCLG Africa’s Executive Committee is the body in charge of the political leadership of the organization. The Executive Committee is comprised of 16 members, 15 members equally representing each of the 5 regions of the continent, (3 for each of the 5 regions), plus the President of the Network of Locally Elected Women of Africa (REFELA – UCLG Africa’s gender committee). The Pan-African Council of UCLG Africa is composed of forty-five (45) active members, nine (9) for each African sub-region.

Celebration of World Cities Day

Watch the 8 sessions  diffussed on live around the theme: “Promoting Local Government and Citizen Engagement for the City We Need in Africa, in Time of Covid-19 and Beyond”
-Official opening ( +)
-Virtual Campus of Urban Thinkers-Session 1 on: Mapping the Main Actors involved in the dynamics of the Sustainable Urbanization (+)
-Virtual Campus of Urban Thinkers-Session 2 on: ” Local Government and Citizen Engagement: Learning from the Covid-19 Pandemic.” (+)
-Urban Lab 2 : Transforming Local Leadership to Build Resilient African Cities. (+).
-Urban Lab 3 : Citizen engagement: challenges, concepts, approche ( +)
-Virtual Campus of Urban Thinkers: The Action Day on Culture and Heritage (+)
-Part 2 of Virtual Campus of Urban Thinkers: The Action Day on Culture and Heritage (+)
-Part 3 of Virtual Campus of Urban Thinkers: The Action Day on Culture and Heritage(+)

Carbon pricing in Africa: opportunities for action at the territorial level

On Tuesday October 27, 2020, UCLG Africa, in partnership with CPLC (Coalition for leadership on carbon pricing) and CoM SSA (Covenant of Mayors for Sub-Saharan Africa) held a webinar with the theme, “Carbon pricing in Africa: opportunities for action at the territorial level.” The meeting contextualized carbon pricing and its goals in relation to sub-national actors in Africa.

The opening speech was delivered by His Excellency Prof. Lee WHITE, Minister of Forests, Sea and Environment of the Republic of Gabon. Welcoming speeches were delivered by Mrs. Wendy Hughes, Manager for Carbon and Market Innovation at the World Bank and Mr. Jean Pierre Elong Mbassi, Secretary General of UCLG Africa.

Ms. Wendy Hughes explained how the World Bank was engaged in working with several partners in Africa to explore carbon pricing opportunities. Through the Coalition for the Leadership on Carbon Pricing (CPLC), actions were carried out with various partners: national governments, the private sector, civil society and local authorities. “This webinar is part of this collaborative spirit of sharing experiences. I hope that the exchange of views will enable us to make important contributions on climate change and to translate this into real action at the local level.

Mr. Jean Pierre Elong Mbassi indicated that it was now essential to set a price on carbon. “Thee setting up of Carbon Pricing System and the development of carbon markets are at the heart of the discussions currently being carried out within the framework of the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. It should be recalled that under the Kyoto Protocol, a mechanism for the trading of pollution rights had been proposed to organize supply and demand in this field in order to arrive at an efficient price, ensuring the best allocation of resources that should be compatible with the imperative of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on a planetary scale. The question is how to go about it. The Kyoto Protocol proposed to rely on the market mechanisms through the Clean Development Mechanism to freely organize the confrontation of supply and demand for greenhouse gas emission quotas. This is how the carbon market was developed. We subsequently realized that this mechanism was not sufficient to have a carbon price that truly reflects the requirement to branch off towards a low carbon economy. This has led to the consideration of other mechanisms for setting an explicit or implicit carbon price, allowing clear signals to be sent on the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions; or on the cost that greenhouse gas emissions impose on society, the general goal being to organize the transition to a low carbon energy system.

Among these mechanisms one can mention:

  • the carbon tax, which makes it possible to have polluters pay directly for the cost of emissions;
  • the compensation price or subsidies for low carbon investments (renewable energies, energy efficiency), which reward avoided emissions at the carbon market price;
  • the laws and regulations that allow for an implicit carbon price to be set in areas where the price is not explicit, such as agriculture, transport or waste. Laws and regulations can also speed up processes of technological breakthroughs that can accelerate the energy transition.

It is known that by 2050 Africa will have joined the rest of the world in having people living mainly in cities and will have 1.2 billion city dwellers. We also know that cities are the source of more than 60 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and that their technological choices in the areas of construction, mobility and transport, as well as waste, among others, will be determinants for a branching off towards a low carbon development model.

As you probably already know with the support of the European Union, nearly 200 cities in sub-Saharan Africa have committed to the production of Climate-Energy plans within the framework of the Covenant of Mayors for the Climate. It therefore, seems essential to us that the 100 cities of more than 1 million inhabitants that Africa will have in the next 5 years, commit now to setting a carbon price and setting up carbon markets structured around sustainable development objectives, to send a clear signal of their determination to initiate the energy and ecological transition now.

This is why United Cities and Local Governments of Africa wished to organize this webinar in collaboration with the Coalition for Carbon Pricing Leadership (CPLC), hosted by the World Bank and the Covenant of Mayors for the Climate and Energy in sub-Saharan Africa (CoM SSA), supported by the European Commission.

The World Bank launched the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) initiative in 2011 to set a price on carbon. This initiative is implemented in October 2020 in 46 national states and 35 subnational jurisdictions.

30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa are committed to the use of carbon pricing or carbon markets in their Nationally Determined Contributions for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. But this initiative has so far not involved local authorities.

This webinar offers the opportunity to share the international experience in Carbon Pricing and the development of carbon market, and aims at making the most of insights and guidance of the best decision-makers, thinkers and professionals, to bring to national and territorial authorities and practitioners of Africa a better understanding of the carbon pricing mechanisms and the usefulness of using them to stimulate the branching off towards a more energy efficient, low carbon, and more resilient territorial development.”

H.E Prof. Lee White revealed that in 2012, his country, Gabon, “realized that we could not count on a sufficient carbon price. We left the UN REDD process to reflect on how to create a sustainable economy around the Gabonese forest. We have banned logging of unprocessed logs in Gabon. In 10 years, we have multiplied our forestry economy by four. Why is a ton of carbon in Europe not the same price as in Gabon? In Gabon we have established a program to develop what is called the smart code. Unfortunately in Gabon, the construction of houses consumes a lot of carbon. The challenge is to set up infrastructures that are both resilient to climate change and low in CO2 emissions. To achieve this, it is necessary to arrive at a real exchange between developed countries and developing countries. This subject is very important. I wish for ourselves, fruitful deliberations.

Ms. Ishanlosen Odiaua, Senior Social Development Specialist at the World Bank, spoke to the audience about the importance of involving local authorities in climate action. “Local authorities can help by working with local people to take ownership of these notions of climate action. Local authorities are closer to populations and these populations are the first victims of pollution, and yet they don’t have a say at the international level. Local and regional elected representatives must represent them by carrying their voice. We must find intercession for the implementation of the different actions in order to avoid top-down approaches. By involving local authorities, we ensure that the opinions of citizens are taken- into-account.

Mr. Andrei Marcu, Founder and Executive Director of ERCST (European Roundtable on Climate Change and Sustainable Transition), is also convinced that cities and local authorities can help achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). “60% of greenhouse gases are in cities. In Africa, the carbon market represents an essential element as a source of financing. In making this transition to a carbon neutral world, it is important to have robust funding for Africa and for the rest of the world. The stakes are huge in Africa, but progress is not satisfactory. In 2019 only 3% of NDCS projects were in Africa and of these projects only 66 projects involved local authorities. We have to start talking about the price of carbon at the international level, but we must also talk about the price of carbon at the national level. Carbon markets can be introduced in a hybrid way in Africa. In Africa, the carbon market process has been slow to start and in some cases has collapsed. You need expertise in this area and an understanding of regulatory frameworks. National governments must create a framework for the participation of cities. Local authorities must give their approval. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement is the only part that is not complete. Articles 6.2 and 6.4 are more decentralized approaches. The reason we often don’t have access to the market is that the market comes from projects in developing countries. You have to have access to these markets to have access to these opportunities. Africa came late to this market and was disappointed because as soon as it arrived the market was collapsing.”

Ms. Mandy Rambharos, Head of the Just Energy Transition office at Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd (Johannesburg, South Africa), specified how the problems in Africa are exacerbated by climate change. “There are social economic challenges and adaptation challenges. The important aspect that needs to be looked at is the role of carbon pricing in attracting finance and financing to Africa. We must meet the requirements for the social and economic development of our countries. We have switched to technologies that emit less carbon, which is good. Carbon pricing plays an important role. We must consider carbon pricing in a more realistic way by focusing on actions and enabling environments.

 

 

 

Panel 1

The first panel discussion was moderated by Ms. Rokhaya Sy Gaye, President of the Tournesol Association, member of the Women Major Group and Country Monitor of the African Gender Group of the Green Climate Fund (City of Dakar). The presenter focused on: “How can African cities contribute to ensuring a successful transition from the Clean Development Mechanism (under the Kyoto Protocol) to Article 6 of the Paris Agreement in order to meet national commitments?”

Ms. Rachel Botti-Douayoua, Representative of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development of Côte d’Ivoire, indicated that in her country, “all CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects have been led by individuals from the private sector, whereas local governments were not involved. Local governments are not involved upstream; generally it is representatives of central governments who are at the negotiating table. The transfer of information between the central government and local governments is often not effective. For communities to be more involved in the implementation of the Paris Agreement, a better understanding of climate issues on the national and local economies is needed. This will allow for the development of local climate strategies. We often have national strategies that are not translated at the local level. One of the shortcomings of the first NDCs was the top-down approach used to develop the climate change strategy. It is often difficult to translate the strategic pillars developed at the national level into action on the ground. One of the recommendations is to favor the bottom-up approach.

For Mr. Yassine Daoudi, Mayor of the city of Guisser (Morocco), Vice-President of AMPCC (Moroccan Association of Presidents of Communal Councils), the fight against climate change requires special funding. “Moroccan local governments are involved in the fight against climate change and are in the search for funding. The local carbon market is an interesting option. Our cities are getting bigger and there is more pollution. If we are thinking of integrating the carbon market, we can switch to a carbon tax which offers possibilities to improve one’s competitiveness where there is trading of CO2 quotas. In 2015, Morocco launched the initiative for the creation of the carbon market in the REDD program with the cement and phosphate sector. At that time, the local authorities were not involved. One cannot speak of a local carbon market without the national carbon market. It is necessary to have a regulator of this carbon market, in particular the central government. It is the same concern with the territorialization of NDCs: it is necessary to territorialize the carbon market.

Mr. Frédéric Vallier, Secretary General of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR), expressed that one of the challenges facing the climate agenda was that it was a danger that seemed very distant to many people. “Nonetheless, everyone recognizes the climate emergency. In 2008, European cities signed up to the Covenant of Mayors. The Covenant of Mayors is a voluntary commitment: there are 10,000 member local authorities. In sub-Saharan Africa, thanks to funding from the European Union, we have developed this convention, which already has several hundred, member cities. ICLEI is the technical arm of the CoM SSA, and UCLG Africa is the political arm to carry out advocacy with African institutions, particularly the African Union, in order to find support and financial instruments. The carbon market is important but we are not there yet. We have to find sources of funding to support cities that engage in actions to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. It is a challenge and an opportunity to rethink the development of our territories.

Mr. Yacoubou Bio Sawé, Director of the Unit for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development at the West African Development Bank (BOAD), discussed the need for effective collaboration between central governments and local authorities. “BOAD has set up a carbon market which collapsed with the 2018 crisis. We are now committed to the United Nations financial mechanisms, in particular the adaptation fund, the Green Climate Fund that granted to us accreditations which allow us today to work on the financing of projects and to give content to the NDC programs of the national governments. Nonetheless, the silos between national governments and local authorities make it difficult to get results. We must think local and act local. Decentralization as experienced today is not likely to help matters. Decentralization must be total, otherwise there will be no results. We must therefore give leadership to the umbrella organization of local and subnational governments on the continent, which is UCLG Africa. The AfDB has signed a partnership with UCLG Africa to reflect on the possibilities of dealing with the problems. If the central government and local authorities remain in a climate of mistrust, there will be a problem, because national resources must be used as a lever to mobilize external funds. It is then necessary to build the capacities of local governments. Local governments must be involved as a major player in the various Conferences of Parties (COPs).

Panel 2

The second panel moderated by Ms. Angela Naneu Churie Kallhauge, Director of the Coalition for Leadership on Carbon Pricing (CPLC) focused on the question, “What are the most effective ways to involve subnational authorities in the implementation strategy of a national and regional framework on the carbon market, and how consequently, to structure the operational framework of cities and territories in the carbon market?”

 

Ms. Hakima El Haité, President of the Liberal International, Former Minister of the Environment of Morocco, spoke out for real decentralization. “The territories produce more than 60% of CO2 emissions and make 90% of the decisions that have an impact on climate change on a daily basis. Local governments have an important role to play concerning the climate issue. I see 4 main obstacles to their involvement. From the institutional and governance standpoint, local governments are not partners in the implementation of public policies. The second obstacle is the top-down approach: it does not involve local governments. The third obstacle is capacity building which is a central aspect, and the fourth obstacle is access to climate finance. Without real and effective decentralization, the implementation of the Paris Agreement will not succeed.

Mr. Anthony Nyong, Director of Climate Change and Green Growth at the AfDB, said, “the carbon tax is there to deter emissions. We must have a space that allows us to grow. Any policy to be implemented in the future must adapt to the sustainable development model. We have to make sure that the money we earn must be supported and directed towards sustainable development.” On questions regarding the price for carbon, measures to improve carbon pricing and incentives, including the role of AfDB, Mr. Nyong stated, “For the moment, 4 countries in West Africa have been chosen to set up pilot projects. We are going to develop an internal carbon price or a carbon credit trading system.

For Mr. Andy Deacom, Director of Strategy and Operations (GCoM), carbon markets can potentially be a vehicle for green growth in Africa. “It is necessary to find a role for the private sector. We must move away from the bottom-up dynamic as UCLG Africa and the CoM SSA do. I think there is untapped potential in the carbon market.”

Mr. Stéphane Pouffary, President of Energies 2050, indicated that in order to shake things up and bring out the potential represented by local actions, one must resort to structured dialogues. “These dialogues can be used to enable a dialogue between the central government and local authorities. In Africa there is some enthusiasm for the process, but there are obstacles in terms of methodology. There are many cities that are not all big cities: local reporting will need to be adapted to the size of cities. Complicity between the national government and local authorities must be anticipated.

In his concluding address, Mr. Jean Pierre Elong Mbassi, Secretary General of UCLG Africa, stressed the fact that, “The carbon price is a compass that is indicative of the real will of societies to commit to the transition to low carbon development. This observation emerged from our discussions. It has also become clear that there is a problem of the social and environmental utility of the carbon price and this is the heart of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. As a result of our deliberations, we should continue to reflect on how we shall go to Glasgow (COP26) with tangible elements making it possible to understand that the carbon price and the carbon market are essential complements to the achievement of the Paris Agreement. The second thing that has been said is that we will not be able to succeed if we do not go to the local level and we will not be able to succeed if we continue to do the NDCs from top to bottom. This is why UCLG Africa has proposed that the revision of the NDCs be taken advantage of, to start a process by local authorities with Locally Determined Contributions (LDCs) which would enrich and harmonize the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). In this way there is a relationship between the local level and the national level. Obviously, there are procedures and these procedures first require the international community to take the time for national governments (especially in Africa) to adjust to this process. We are among those who say that there is a need for a climate focal point at the level of national associations of local authorities, as is the case at the national level within different ministries. We would thus have a person who is the interface for building the capacity of local governments to come to the table. If they are not around the table, it means that nothing is being discussed. 60% of greenhouse gases are produced in cities. This junction must be made between the national level and the local level. All the countries have national associations which represent these local authorities. At the continental level we have UCLG Africa and at the global level there is UCLG. Finally, it is clear that there is extraordinary scientific work that needs to be produced. Engaging in the construction of carbon markets requires that there be measures, reporting, and systems that allow the recommendations of the last Conference of the Parties (COP) to be applied.”

Watch The video of the Webinar